To be able to determine what and where of value is on the planet, it is important to know how it turned out there. Let's consider some possible stages in the formation of the face of the Earth. 

About the formation of the planet - the importance of knowing the processes

Take at least such a primitive example for comparison, the same chicken egg. At low temperatures, it freezes and breaks the shell despite its relative thickness, which is greater than the thickness of the earth's crust. Of course, this example should not be taken seriously, since the freezing process does not occur inside the planet, leading to the expansion of the contents. The rupture of the egg shell when the liquid freezes only clearly shows how the integrity of the shell is broken when the contents inside the substance expand. And despite the primitiveness of the given example, it is a vivid example of proof of the phenomena taking place with the earth's crust.

The increase in the size of the planet is only due to the oceans

The emergence of intra-planetary pressure puts the integrity of the petrified earth shell into a critical position. A solid physical body is not rubber, it is capable of stretching. The earth's crust, despite its many thousand-meter thickness, does not withstand elastic stresses and breaks, breaks in the weakest places, in the places where tectonic forces develop. The torn parts never merge, but on the contrary, they diverge further and further. And depending on the nature of the processes occurring in the depths of the upper mantle, it accordingly affects the consequences in the rupture area itself: either this place remains the deepest depression, or it is immediately filled.

The fate of the place of rupture in the earth's crust is determined by the time of the geological development of the planet. Probably, at the present time, the deepest depressions similar to oceanic ones cannot arise on the continents, just as in the Archean period separate water basins, deepened into the earth's crust, could not arise. And the time since then has been counted in billions of years. One can imagine how much earthly heat has evaporated into outer space without a trace. The evaporation of heat had a tremendous impact on the formation of the inner structure of the planet, especially the area of ​​the upper mantle.

The upper mantle at the present time is not at all what it was during the formation of the continents. And the thickness of the earth's crust has undergone significant changes.

They say that understanding the vital activity of the upper mantle region and its influence on the formation of the earth's crust is of very great vital economic importance. This is true and quite natural. However, it should be noted that this time, when the earth's crust (meaning the continental one) was completely and completely dependent on the activity of the upper mantle, has already passed and has passed irrevocably.

Now the area of ​​the upper mantle itself becomes similar to the earth's crust. It is no longer a supplier of building materials for the continents, despite the fact that it lies directly beneath them. Currently, everything is aimed at building the ocean floor and all kinds of superstructures on it. The continents are currently experiencing only an echo of those distant times of stormy deeds that have moved to the area of ​​the ocean floor. And even then, by their nature of action, the forces that form the earth's crust are in many respects distinguishable from the previous ones. With great difficulty, it is possible to push natural superstructures to the surface, despite the fact that such material accumulates no less than before. Most of this material remains in "warehouses". Only in abundant quantities accumulated, is it able to come to the surface, creating the largest structures like the Mid-Oceanic ridges.

Volcanic activity on the continents is just a vent for the ventilation of the inner-planetary laboratory-kitchen. They no longer play any significant role in shaping the external appearance of the planet. Their future is very unenviable and goes on fading all the time. If in the past, somewhere in the Archean, they were so active, modern continents would hardly exist. And it seems to us that they are currently very intense and threatening.

One can be convinced of the conclusion about the decline in volcanic activity on the continents by following the traces of long extinct volcanoes. The situation is different at the bottom of the oceans. As already mentioned, all their activities have been transferred only there now and beyond.

Change of priorities in the search for fossils

Why does a person strive for knowledge of the secrets of nature and its laws? The answer is very simple: to reap the benefits for your life. Nature gives him invaluable material wealth, but does not give him an endless stream, but in certain portions, which are clearly not always enough. The more the development of human society, the more its increase, the more the need for material resources increases. And these were laid in the earth's crust in different ways about inaccessibility. The more available are exhausted or are already being exhausted. The need is proportional to the development of society. If you use only the old methods of prospecting for minerals, then industrial famine will come in the end. What then? But since the planet's wealth is inexhaustible, the whole difficulty in extracting them will lie in new methods of identifying the occurrence of such, in the ability to determine the place in the earth's crust where they are hidden. Until now, the mainland crust is the supplier of the necessary values.

Practice shows that in the end the most accessible places on the continents can be completely depleted. There remain two directions of searching for valuable raw materials: hard-to-reach areas on the continents and at the bottom of the oceans.

But in order to determine the place of occurrence of minerals in hard-to-reach places on the continents, deep knowledge of the processes of their formation is required. A complete understanding of the mechanism of mass motion during the differentiation of matter in the zone melting zone at that other stage of the geological development of the earth's crust is required. After all, the earth's crust is a multistage aggregate of territorial areas of the firmament, sometimes of enormous size. Speaking of this, we mean the continental type of crust, separate from the oceanic one.

How to understand the meaning of the stated thought? At first, this formulation seems incredible. In the literal sense of the formulation, it is clear that the modern continental crust is a heterogeneous junction of sites of different ages.

Vertical determination of age, selectivity of formation of deposits 

Undoubtedly, if this formulation fell into the hands of any scientist, it would have caused indignation, etc. After all, the antiquity or youth of certain geological deposits in science is usually counted from the surface of the earth in depth. The deeper the rocks lie, the older they are. This is quite true, and no one denies it. The other side of the coin is the same - it is the horizontal reading. For some reason, this side of the coin is not given proper attention as a reference in depth. Perhaps she remains above suspicion. And therefore, scientists are repeatedly puzzled by the position that, according to the vertical determination of age, it is not always possible to find rocks, for example, Precambrian deposits. In some places they lie at a certain depth, in others - deeper, and in some they are completely absent. This example is inherent in any period.

Doesn't this situation raise a legitimate question: why is this so? Yes, quite naturally. However, it may seem that such a formulation of the question is not given serious attention, thinking is not strained in search of an answer.

And the very interpretation of age deposits is so vague that in essence it does not give any specific ideas about the nature of this or that deposit, except for the time of their occurrence: Precambrian, Devonian, Carboniferous, Cretaceous, Tertiary, etc. only one question: where could these deposits come from, and you can be sure that the answer would not have followed with complete clarity. After all, geological deposits of any period are not a thin layer of dust, but sometimes rather large strata of rocks. And here it is no longer possible to follow a template, they say, these sedimentary rocks are the product of the destruction of bedrocks. In an extreme case, one could agree with such a formulation, if there was a conversation about sedimentary rocks that directly lie on the bedrock type of the crystalline basement. But after all, various layering in bedding is considered and determined by age. How can you imagine the origin of Cretaceous deposits if they are located between thick layers of different rocks and a completely different chemical and mineralogical composition?

Of course, the answer will follow immediately: of marine origin. But modern liners sail the oceans and thoroughly explore it. Do you find similar places of Cretaceous deposits?

Moreover, it is of marine origin. Little because water itself does not generate this sedimentary material. And even if it was dissolved in water, then the solution itself got into the water basin only from the deep bowels of the planet.

This is why a formulaic approach to the nature of sedimentary rocks does not reveal the truth and does not advance our concepts to subsequent knowledge. And all these are grains of which the earth's crust consists.

About the formation of the planet - matter from its bowels

Each geological period of the planet's development left its imprint, but not everywhere on the earth's surface, but in places, in separate places. And even if we could even imagine that at one time modern continents were completely covered with water, and then the sediments that arose then could not spread everywhere, but only localized, that is, in those places where they broke through to the surface. And therefore, considering the modern distribution of sedimentation, scientists come to the conclusion that the sea has repeatedly advanced and retreated to land. Is this true? This is doubtful.

The importance of the external environment during an eruption

Somehow there was an opinion in science that the existing alternation of layers of sedimentary rocks is determined with the alternation of retreat and reverse advance of the sea. To ask the authors of this opinion, where could sea water bring such a huge amount of material to create strata out of it only in certain places? You can be sure there would be no answer.

The fact that the largest strata of sedimentary rocks lie in the troughs of the earth's crust does not mean that water is given the leading role. Of course, during the emergence of vast depressions in the earth's crust, masses of water were concentrated there. But the water in such depressions played only the role of the environment, and not the cause of the occurrence of sedimentary material.

The environment itself for igneous rocks is of no small importance not only for the distribution of material on the surface, but as an influential factor on the final structural formation. Not all chemical compounds, that is, minerals, acquire the same appearance in water and in air after an eruption in a red-hot state.

This is also one of the necessary factors for understanding the very nature of the formation of the earth's crust.

Faults as shapers of the planet's appearance

In order for the prepared amount of matter in the bowels of the planet to appear on the surface, it needs a free exit. And such a way out is the resulting break in the hardened shell of the previous outpourings. The cause of the occurrence of faults will be those tectonic forces that, roughly speaking, are directly related to the accumulation of material that should be thrown from the depths to the day surface. Any eruption, whether magmatic or mountain-forming, or gaseous, is an act of extinguishing the intra-planetary pressure.

But it is not done as soon as the tale says. The variety of tectonic movements is very large. There are cases when a portion of the intra-planetary matter appears on the surface almost at lightning speed, and it also happens that the very preparation of the ejection in the intended place takes hundreds or even more than a hundred years. Let us recall a volcanic eruption today, as in Brazil, when in broad daylight a volcano formed on a flat corn field. And the newly appeared island of Surtsey off the coast of Greenland?

These are just a few minor in scale, but they also give us a complete picture of more grandiose events in the past. It has already been mentioned that all significant efforts to shape the appearance of the Earth and the accumulation of tectonic actions for the modern period are concentrated in the water basin. All varieties of the same mechanism of the appearance of deep matter on the surface are not so easy to consider in a brief summary.

It is most easy to understand and reveal the mechanism of the appearance of terrestrial matter on the surface of later geological periods, especially in the last stage of determining the forms of modern continents. Most of all, it is the hardships of the Proterozoic and Archean eras. Adhering to the general principles of the dynamic movements of the original earth's crust, in modeling the mechanism of the planet's expansion, some of the data sometimes look more than fantastic.

The most ancient parts of the planet

Crystalline foundations are considered to be the most ancient parts of the earth's crust. These are scattered all over the world. At the same time, they are the cores of the continents.

Simultaneously with the consideration of the question of the origin of the crystalline shields, it is necessary to keep in mind the platforms that are close to the former.

According to the scientific definition, a crystalline shield is a large area of ​​the earth's crust, on which Precambrian rocks protrude to the surface. In rare cases, they are covered by an insignificant stratum of sedimentary rocks.

The platform already has some distinctive features. This is a large area of ​​the earth's crust, where two geostructural levels can be distinguished: the lower one is crystalline and the upper one is sedimentary. The platform is characterized by the absence of significant folding processes, oscillatory movements prevail.

The common in these two geological formations will be a crystalline massif. But both belong to the Precambrian, that is, to the Proterozoic and Archean eras. If they are indiscriminately attributed to a time of more than 5 billion years, the concept of their specific age will look very vague.

The platform has a crystalline basement and has a thick sedimentary cover. The shield has only crystalline rocks. Yet which of them will be older and which will be younger? The very distribution of sedimentation already indicates a difference in age.

If a scientist were to ask such a question, of course, he would have resorted to modern methods for determining age from radioactive isotopes. Without such a method, one has to use the comparison method in combination with the known one.

Let's take into account the known fact that any sedimentary rocks, no matter how loose or cemented, are an erupted mass from the deep bowels of the planet. Here we will not take into account all sorts of processes of their redeposited, which actually took place, although not so significant on a global scale. The most controversial issue remains the question of crystalline rocks. They are also not all the same age. Among them there are even more ancient and younger ones.

We will assume that the most ancient crystalline rocks of all such will be granites and the like. (Let it be verified). In this regard, one should take into account first the power and nature of occurrence, and then the prevalence on a global scale. Their block structure also plays an important role.

And in science, it is probably wrongly accepted to consider individual block structures of granites as intrusive bodies. Intrusion is around them, but they are not intrusive.

 About the formation of the planet - thanks to the expansion

Granite strata, in whatever form they are found now in the earth's crust, are the remnants of the pristine crust. If we are not skeptical about what has been said, but are taken seriously, then we could learn a lot about the evolutionary development of the earth's crust as a whole.

In confirmation of the expanding Earth

Quite valuable material was provided by V.B. Neumann in his work on the expanding Earth - a diagram of the tectonics of the globe. What could be clearer for the knowledge of the truth that our planet, in reality, throughout its entire existence, endured a grandiose process of expansion, swelling, increase in volume.

Let us take this opportunity and try to delve into the understanding of the tectonics of the globe in more detail.

How can the definition of rocks called Precambrian platforms be included in our concept? These are the most ancient parts of the earth's crust, formed at the very beginning of its inception. According to the diagram, they are scattered across the globe in separate patches.

What is the opinion of any knowledgeable person, how meaningfully does he perceive the variegation of the structure of the earth's crust according to spatio-temporal areas? How to understand that in some places parts of the earth's crust are very ancient, while in others they are much younger? Can we refer to the fact that at one time the planet Earth could not have a fully formed crust?

Each part of the earth's crust was formed in its own time

According to the distribution of areas of the earth's crust by age, it logically follows the conclusion about the not ubiquitous presence of a hardened shell. Where Precambrian platforms are indicated, suppose it first formed. The question is, what was in the place where the solidified shell appeared many millions of years later? Emptiness? An incandescent mass of matter? Or is it a body of water?

And this is not a desperate situation. If we assume that the volume of the globe has not changed since its inception and was as it is, then the entire present earth's crust arose everywhere simultaneously in the Precambrian. The presence of young areas of the earth's crust can be explained by the covering of the ancient crust with younger rocks, which came to the surface from the depths much later. Consequently, the most ancient crystalline rocks should be found at a depth under all surface areas of different ages. And in fact? Is the case study consistent with theoretical findings? No, they don't. Crystalline rocks of the Precambrian are not found, for example, in the zones of Cenozoic folding as well as the Cenozoic in the Precambrian.

These are completely separate formations of different times of their origin in the general cycle of the geological development of the Earth. And no matter how deeply drilled in the area of ​​the Cenozoic zone, crystalline rocks of the Precambrian will not be found up to the mantle. What does this mean? And this means that, regardless of any own prejudices, one should call things by their proper names and understand them meaningfully.

Let it seem wild, incredible and implausible to us, but still it is necessary to accept the concept that the Earth at the initial stages of its origin was several times smaller in volume than the modern one. Only under this condition will we understand the essence of the uneven-aged sections of the earth's crust. Even if the mystery of the processes taking place inside the planet, which lead to such an extraordinary phenomenon, does not open up to us, we can learn a lot, which is a complete unknown for us today. And we will consider it a duty to put on the verbal shelves a mute image of the Earth's drawing.

Platforms as stages in the development of the planet

The predecessors of the theory of the expanding Earth correctly and quite reasonably presented the essence of the crustal planet. They threw out bodies of water and closed all continents. There is more evidence of this than would be needed. But that is not all. Much of Kirillov's crustal model is not yet fully consistent, not everything coincides with great accuracy. But the reason is not in their mapping, but in those significant changes that took place with the continents even when they were already dismembered.

And therefore, it would be necessary to start research from the time when a solid shell was first formed on the young planet Earth. This shell will be the Precambrian platforms. Let us not fit into a meaningful form, but we must believe the facts.

The Precambrian platforms also underwent changes 

Precambrian platforms exist on all continents of the globe, but not in the same proportion. Africa is a continuous Precambrian platform. In South America, the platform is divided into two halves by the later Caledonian platform, the North American platform is partially dissected and framed on 3 sides by sections of the earth's crust of a later age, the Hercynian platform is attached to the Australian platform, four sections of the Precambrian platform are located in Eurasia, and finally most of Antarctica is also occupied by the Precambrian platform. All of this represents the torn apart pieces of a once-unified platform.

If we throw away all other platforms and zones of later origin, close only the Precambrian platforms into one, then one can imagine what size our planet was after some 5 billion years.

Incredible? Yes, it is very incredible when you compare it to its current size.

It was easier for Kirillov to create a model of the Earth's crust, closing the existing continents and throwing out water spaces. It is more difficult to create a crustal model of the planet in its initial stage of development. Here, in many ways, the torn pieces will not match. And they will not be not because they once did not close, but because these torn pieces themselves, already being dismembered, once again endured changes under the influence of tectonic actions.

Take Africa for example. According to the schematic representation, it represents a continuous Precambrian platform. But in fact, this is a continent of crystalline rocks of different ages. According to the studies of foreign scientists, it is clear that the Precambrian platform of Africa includes many tectonic disturbances with inclusions of rocks of late origin. The same can be said for any single Precambrian platform.

From that moment, when the earth's crust was a continuous crystalline massif, a gradual study of the mechanism of the expanding planet should have begun.

If at the beginning of this study the question of the incredibly enormous pressure inside the planet that arises at the present time was raised, then it is quite possible to assume that the same pressure occurred at the time when the platforms were forming.

Here is both analogy and logic. The question arises, due to what other circumstances or reasons could the hardened primordial shell burst? In this, as you can see, there is some unknown to us unshakable regularity of the development of planetary bodies.

 About the formation of the planet - phasing in the location of continents

A very striking example of evidence of a fault in the Precambrian platform and the emergence of a new, later platform at the fracture site is the South American Precambrian platform. As if a driven wedge of the Caledonian platform split the old one into two parts, which can be easily closed by throwing out the last one. The formation of the Precambrian global platform will be considered the first stage in the development of the Earth.

Forming periods of continents with their platforms

The second stage of development will be the emergence of the Caledonian platforms.

The Caledonian platforms, like the Precambrian, with the present-day form of the continents, are also scattered across all continents. These platforms were no longer the same as the Precambrian. They arose between the torn parts of the oldest.

The appearance of new areas of the earth's crust in the interval between the torn parts of the old ones already clearly indicates an increase in the spherical area, that is, the surface area of ​​the earth's crust, and at the same time the volume of the planet as a whole.

Most of the Caledonian platforms are directly adjacent to the Precambrian, which indicates a strong adhesion of crystalline rocks of different ages.

The third stage in the geological development of the planet will be the emergence of the Hercynian (Upper Paleozoic) platforms. The formation of such over the territory in the earth's crust occurs unevenly between the broken parts of the ancient platforms, and they are concentrated somehow in almost one place: on the territory of modern Asia. The next places are Australia and Antarctica, partly Europe (northern) and the tip of South America.

The fourth stage is the Mesozoic platforms. Unlike the previous platforms, the Mesozoic formations no longer have such clear delineations. For the most part, they arise in the areas of the Precambrian platforms, less often at the boundary of the dissection of either the Precambrian platforms themselves, or between the Precambrian and Hercynian platforms. This situation already gives some idea of ​​the position of matter in the mantle region, of its strength at a certain stage of the geological development of the earth's crust and the planet as a whole. The Mesozoic platforms are even more fragmented between the older platforms.

And finally, the fifth stage - the Cenozoic zones of folding and disturbances. A characteristic feature of this zone is that it arose not scattered, but in two places in the form of huge belts, in place of faults in the weakest places, between the previously formed crystalline basements. The characteristic feature of the emergence of this belt brings our concept of the peculiarities of the internal structure of the subcrustal region closer, and gives an idea of ​​the mechanism of movement of rock-forming masses, their temperature state, and the thickness of the hard shell in general at that time.

Here are five such main stages in the evolutionary development of the Earth up to the period of the division of the total mass of the crust into separate areas, which we now call continents.

Evolutionary development with the formation of oceans

According to the detailed tracking of each of these stages, it should probably give rise to an understanding of what prompted the mainland crust to eventually break into separate pieces and start them on their own along the swelling sphere of the planet.

A characteristic feature of the sixth stage of the planet's development is that the rupture of the pre-continental crust, in contrast to the ruptures of the previous stages, went in two directions: the dissection mainly went along the Precambrian platforms, as the most ancient regions, and in the Cenozoic period, as the youngest period.

These two facts taken together in some way open the curtain over the concept of the structural structure of the upper mantle and its connection with the crustal region at a certain stage of the planet's development.

The seventh stage of the geological development of the Earth is the emergence of the Mid-Oceanic Belt.

The eighth stage has just begun its business, determining the places of future births.

But the so-called intermediate periods between the sixth and seventh stages are important. These periods gave rise to many mysterious structures at the bottom of the oceans, the solution to which makes it clear about the nature of water on Earth and about its quantity in certain epochs. Perhaps it will still help to realize about its continuous growth on the planet.

So this is how much material you need to digest, comprehend it, understand the essence of the mechanism of each process at each stage of the geological development of the Earth, in order to find out what the mantle is below the border of Mohorovichich. And this is just one side of knowledge. And how many of them are all - it's hard to say.

The development of the planet with the beginning of the divergence of the continents 

What is noticed in a cursory review of all stages of the geological development of the planet Earth? First of all, the increase in the amount of terrestrial matter is striking. Our planet is called mother. And this is a very correct definition, not in a figurative, but in the literal sense of the word. She, like a mother, gave birth to everything that we see, feel and ourselves of which we are made.

Each new era in the life of the Earth was marked by grandiose events of the birth of more and more new formations, changing and complementing its external appearance. There is no need to invent some bizarre inventions in order to meaningfully understand the essence of its geological development in the past and predict the future. Everything is there and cannot be hidden from human gaze. The only problem is that all this does not fit into the still poorly developed human consciousness. We sometimes look for something that does not exist, reject it and do not want to see what really exists. And all our aspirations are directed towards knowledge. No, we have not yet learned to cognize, have not learned to comprehend the reality of the material world. Let it be a reproach, but a just reproach.

The birth of terrestrial matter by the inner part of the planet is one of the deepest mysteries of the natural development of the material world.

Probably, in this pattern, almost all the responses to the phenomena occurring that we see, feel and do not understand are concentrated in this pattern.

A characteristic feature of the birth of new formations at regular intervals (after many millions of years) is their locality. Speaking of locality, we mean the structure of the earth's crust during the Archean, Proterozoic and Paleozoic eras, when the spreading of modern continents had not yet begun.

The constancy of the ratio of water on the planet 

Modern continents in those very distant times were a single continent on a global scale. Where were the seas and oceans? - the question may instantly arise - where could a huge mass of such a liquid material as water be placed?

Bearing in mind the current amount of water masses on the entire planet, it is unthinkable to imagine a small volume of a planet with its small surface. If it was on Earth in such a quantity and then, then with what power did it cover the then continents? No, this is inconceivable. This is something fantastic and incredible.

The depth from the surface of the water to the hardened shell should be not small tens of kilometers! Absurd! Indeed, many mountain ranges on modern continents are not so high, but do not have any signs that they were flooded with water. The fact that water at one time really covered the space of modern continents is beyond doubt: there is more evidence than necessary. Where is the logical consistency. And the logical consistency first of all lies in the fact that there was the same amount of water in proportion to the area of ​​the earth's crust. It was many times less than it is now.

Water, at the same time, covered the earth's crust with a very insignificant thickness. And what was its thickness in this or that geological period and now it is possible to determine with great accuracy relative to the general level of the land itself in a particular place on the globe. On the continents, the fixtures of the then water level are still quite well preserved. The water left, and they, naked, have remained unchanged to this day.

These are the same fixators not only on the continents, but also on the ocean floor. The nature of their birth is organically linked to the aquatic environment, and they owe their form to it. Since they are mysterious structures, they are credited with all kinds of invented principles of education, but not natural ones.

Modern seas and oceans are the most stable in comparison with the past pre-Paleozoic. The modern place on the planet is determined to be permanent. Their nomadic life has long ceased.

 About the formation of the planet - in the final stages

The World Ocean lived a different life during the Archean, Proterozoic and Paleozoic eras. Firstly, he was the ruler of the entire globe, and secondly, his life was very stormy and seething. And here it should be more specific to talk about the locality of the emerging new formations on the globe. 

The earth's crust is torn apart in certain places

In a cursory review of the geological periods of the development of the Earth, it has already been mentioned about individual places of occurrence of certain rocks belonging to certain tectonic zones. In general terms, the impression was that tectonic zones did not show their activity everywhere throughout the entire globe, but in separate places, that is, their activity was concentrated in isolated areas of the earth's crust.

According to the concept of an expanding rigid spherical body, one thing is clear: it collapses. And the first duty is the destruction of strength begins in the weakest and least durable places. The same applies to the principle of destruction of the solid shell of the Earth.

The fact that the increased intra-planetary pressure leads to the beginning of the destruction of the strength of the hardened shell should not be in doubt. There is already sufficient evidence of this. But the variety of processes occurring during tectonic movements does not so easily allow us to grasp the main and previous circumstance of this phenomenon. Say, the globe is simply expanding and the earth's crust is torn, it will not be quite enough for a meaningful concept of the main entity. In this case, the earth's crust could be torn anywhere and anyhow and torn, and remain. But we see a completely different picture: the places of breaks are filled with matter below the general level of the surface. Hence the conclusion: high pressure inside the planet arises due to the addition of matter. The force of the generated pressure exceeds the critical power of the fossilized material, and it breaks apart.

Intra-planetary pressure is extinguished due to the release of excess matter to the surface. The incandescent matter that has risen to many thousand meters in height, having its own specific gravity, also creates its own pressure on the inner part of the planet. The excess of the intra-planetary pressure over the created gravitational pressure leads to the eruption or outpouring of matter, the balancing of the pressure and gravitational forces, stops the movement of the incandescent masses. In this case, we can observe the formation of either volcanic cones or lava fields.

However, the principle of such a mechanism does not yet give us a complete idea of ​​how whole vast areas of the earth's crust could have formed in all their power, consisting of the same or a different composition of rocks, but belonging to a specific geological time.

Processes during the Cenozoic folding 

Take, for example, the Cenozoic zones of folding and destruction. This is one of the last stages of the formation of the earth's crust even at the time of its separation. Until that time, the surface of the globe already had a fairly solid area and a varied structure of the crust itself. In many places it has been disrupted by previous tectonic movements, so there is no hope of relying on its uniform strength everywhere. If a huge amount of matter has already accumulated under the hardened bark, then ruptures could arise in different corners and thereby open the gates for its exit to the surface. However, as we can see, the appearance on the surface of matter in a rather huge amount, is concentrated in one direction in the form of a belt. This suggests, as it were, that the weakest point in the crust was only where it emerged to the surface. Why wouldn't such a large amount of the substance be distributed into separate portions, and in different places came out? Several time-dependent factors appear to have played a role in this regard.

Let's run briefly through all the stages. Precambrian deposits today are crystalline massifs formed from a fiery liquid mass, which cooled down already being on the surface. Granites are a good example of this. The later the eruption of matter from the bowels took place, the lower the temperature state it was, not taking into account the individual and insignificant eruptions in the formation of the crust. The later the stages of tectonic action, the stronger the mountain-forming processes came into play. And finally, the final mountain-forming process was the Cenozoic period.

The substance emerged on the surface in a low-temperature state. The incandescent matter of a viscous state was piled up with huge superstructures of record height. In what form it appeared at the very beginning, in such a way it has survived to the present day.

Of course, had these words caught the eye of a modern geologist with firmly established opinions about the origin of mountain systems or individual mountains, he would in no way agree with this and even offended b. Without concealing, we can say openly that in no case and under any circumstances and evidence should one agree with the established opinions: they are fundamentally wrong and contradictory. No crumbling of the earth's crust occurred and no mountain systems, as a result, did not arise. And the fact that mountain ranges are really crumpled folds is impeccable, but the mechanism of their formation is not at all what it is customary to think about.

If the mechanism of mountain-forming processes were known to modern science, views on other natural phenomena and their interpretation would also change in many respects. The visibility of rock samples from small to the largest formations irreproachably states that they were crushed at one time. And there is no better evidence of this as visualization. But how, when and under what circumstances this variegated crumpling into an accordion took place remains a mystery for science. The beginning of the existing explanation is correct - horizontal compression. And just that.

The separation of the continents began not earlier than the Cenozoic

A deeper question will probably be interesting: what happened to the substance of intra-planetary birth after the Paleozoic era, when it was no longer able to erupt to the surface?

This is where the confusion probably begins.

Some of the supporters of the expansion of the Earth argue that the separation of continents originates after the Paleozoic. Alpine folding belongs to the Cenozoic era, to the most recent, that is, modern. According to Kirillov's crustal model, Cenozoic zones already existed.

Where is the logical connection? Here in science something is confused, something is out of place.

According to our own considerations and the order of the stages of geological development and their characteristic features, the Cenozoic folding zones we call could not arise after the separation of a single continent into separate parts began.

Here one of two things: either the Cenozoic folding was made very young, or the beginning of the divergence of the continents was carried far in the old days.

Cenozoic folding already existed by the time the continents began to separate. An example has already been given on the Kirillov cow model, as if referring to it. But here there is also a consideration of the impossibility of the appearance of Cenozoic folding after the rupture of a single continent into separate parts. In a few words about them, this is an analysis of the phased development of the planetary crust in accordance with the temperature state of matter as a building material, which has reached the maximum mobility and the state of matter is below the Mohorovichich border, that is, the region of the upper mantle.

And what happens? The thought is inclined to the fact that the expansion of the continents began much later than in the Paleozoic - somewhere in the Cenozoic in the Tertiary period, when the organic world flourished on Earth and man was already its inhabitant. At present, scientists are surprised by the related distribution of species of fauna and flora at rather distant distances. It turns out that this question is resolved if we consider that once the pieces of land were reunited, and then dispersed. However, even in this issue, not everything becomes clear. The rather huge distances that have arisen between the torn parts of the continents do not fit into such a short time.

The result is a very large temporal-spatial contrast. If the development of the continental crust took place for such a long time - from the Archean era to the Cenozoic, then the oceanic type very, very quickly - only during one last era, and then, probably, not completely.

The fact that the Cenozoic zones, such as the Andes and the Cordillera, arose when man was on Earth, is evidenced by material evidence. (Y. Alirina. A fishing hut on the top of a mountain at 5000 m, a pier near Lake Tanganna at an altitude of 4500 m above the level of the modern ocean, etc.)

According to all data, man exists on Earth for 1 million years. Now some people have spoken about the existence of man for about 2 million years. May be. But how does the fact that human remains were found in a seam of coal in Italy fit into the consciousness of the scientific world? If this fact is reliable, then it turns out that man appeared on the planet even earlier, somewhere in the Paleozoic. But by this time hundreds of millions of years are counted. Could it be? And no, according to our ideas about the evolutionary development of man in general, and yes, according to the laws of dialectics of nature. So the time of existence of organic life on the planet cannot always be consistent with its events of geological development.

In a word, clarification of the incomprehensibility that has arisen is not a matter of one mind. And in general, with such a meager awareness, one should not even enter into searches. There are others for this. Practical for some, theoretical for others. 

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